Category Archives: Buy Essay

dentifying any recent article that touches on dome...

dentifying any recent article that touches on domestic crime, describe the incident that led to the crime and do an analysis of it.


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discuss the difference in sentencing guidelines fo...

criminal justice essay

• Research and discuss the difference in sentencing guidelines for power cocaine vs. crack cocaine. Explain the significance and the possible racial connection to these sentences. Your research paper must include references to both state and federal laws, the justification for the sentencing guidelines and the counter position of eliminating such disparity.
• In this paper you will discuss the topic of “hate crimes” by specifically choosing a single criminal offense and the additional penalties attached to such convictions. Explain the concept of a “hate crime”, what the additional penalties are and discuss your opinion on whether hate crimes should be included in legal statutes. You will use multiple sources on the same criminal incident to detail the perception of such statutes.
Your textbook is NOT an acceptable source for these assignments. Your textbook may serve as a guide, but you will need to obtain at least three (3) independent sources for this paper. Additionally, Wikipedia is NOT an acceptable source.

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Material facts about the song such as the title, t...

What can one song tell you

Paper instructions:
•Material facts about the song such as the title, the name of the band or performing artist, the musicians and their respective instruments or voice, the composer(s), the recording dates, record label, the style “genre” of Rock represented, etc.
•Connections between the song and society
•The importance of the primary performer of the song
•A history of the song such as considerations of other performers who may have also recorded it—a cover song
•List any musical characteristics you notice in the music such as tempo, texture, timbres, mood conveyed, meter, dynamics, improvisational style, etc.
•Your connections to the song – its meaning for you, its identity

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“Louise” a John Lee Hooker composition; this p...

The Yardbirds

“Louise” a John Lee Hooker composition; this performance features Keith Relf singing and playing blues harmonica, and Eric Clapton on electric guitar
“For Your Love” – from 1965, this is the original promotional film version of the song.
“I’m A Man” – The Yardbirds from 1967 featuring Keith Relf singing and playing blues harmonica, and Jimmy Page on electric guitar
From your reading, viewing, and listening, briefly evaluate the significance of The Yardbirds to the history of rock music?
2. What is the connection between The Yardbirds and Led Zeppelin?
3. As you listen to Eric Clapton play with the band called Cream (one many bands Eric has been a major contributor to), compare and contrast the following songs. Friedlander’s discussion of the musical characteristics present in the famous Cream song, Sunshine of Your Love are common to many of their other songs as well. Listen and list those that you recognize in these two examples:
a) Crossroads
b) White Room
4. What does Friedlander have to say about the guitar playing of Jimmy Page? What future genre did his playing style help “lay the foundation” for?
5. As you listen to the following selections by Led Zeppelin, list any characteristics or unique aspects present in these recordings. What are the major differences between their music and that of the majority of other late 60′s/early 70′s bands?
a) The Lemon Song
b) Whole Lotta Love
c) Communication Breakdown
Notice the tremendous influence of the blues in their music. The music is louder, more intense, at times, almost raw. This truly is “rock which had not been dissipated by a softening of its integral nature—of its Afro-American, blues centered character.” Listen especially for the combination of Jimmy Page’s blues guitar playing and Robert Plant’s exceptional blues vocal stylings. There are moments when I directly hear Janis Joplin, and Big Mama Thornton in his vocal timbres.
Friedlander states, “the music beyond the advent of Led Zeppelin fell into two categories—hard rock/heavy metal and art rock.”
About Art Rock—”Arguments that rock could be improved by the absorption of Brahmsian piano technique or entire pieces composed by Mussorgsky, misunderstood its archetypal role as a revolt against colonial mentality—as a purgative which, like Artaud’s theater, had as its purpose the elimination of European chauvinism.” (Nathan Rubin “Rock and Roll: Art and Anti Art”, 217)
Rubin is correct. Rock did not “improve” thanks to groups such as The Moody Blues and Emerson, Lake, and Palmer (nor was that their purpose)—it branched out, taking the very music that represented “Western cultural superiority”, and fused it with rock and roll.
6. Explore the list below of Art Rock or Progressive Rock bands. Select two different bands to listen and respond to from the single songs and full album selections below. You may elect to respond to the single tracks or to entire albums. Be sure to list characteristics you notice on your particular recording that Friedlander presents in his discussion of Art Rock. Please list any other characteristics you hear that are not outlined by him. This music is fun to explore and offers a variety of characteristics–Enjoy!
a) The Moody Blues from the incredible album “Days of Future Passed” from December 1967 – “Nights in White Satin”
b) Emerson, Lake, and Palmer from “Brain Salad Surgery” 1973 – “Karn Evil 9″
c) Yes – “Fragile” (Full Album 1971) featuring the classic hit, “Roundabout”
d) Yes – “Close To The Edge” (Full Album 1972)
e) Yes – “Tales from Topographic Oceans” (Full Album 1973)
f) Jethro Tull – “Aqualung” (Full Album 1971)
g) Jethro Tull – “Living In The Past” a wonderful song from 1969 – featuring Ian Anderson on flute and vocals–one of the few songs in Rock History in 5/4 time
h) King Crimson – “In The Court of The Crimson King” (Full Album 1969)
i) Procol Harum – “A Whiter Shade of Pale” – from 1967. This is perhaps one of the most beautiful songs in the history of Rock and Roll. The melody is totally influenced by the music of Johann Sebastian Bach–as evidenced in Matthew Fischer’s playing on the Hammond M-102 electric organ. This beautiful melody is coupled with a vocal line sung by pianist Gary Brooker.
j) Genesis – “Supper’s Ready” from the 1972 album “Foxtrot”
k) Roxy Music – “Remake/Remodel” from 1972
l) Queen – “Bohemian Rhapsody” from the 1975 album “A Night At The Opera”
m) Electric Light Orchestra – “Telephone Line” from 1976
n) Electric Light Orchestra – “Fire On High” a truly satisfying musical exploration of everything from pop sensibilities, classical choir and strings, to musique concrete–from the 1975 album “Face The Music”–enjoy!
7. Nathan Rubin states, “To retain the intensity Presley had generated simply by sneering and singing the country blues, rock during the seventies was obliged to turn assaultiveness up to the max. The result was called Heavy Metal.” List the characteristics (as detailed in Friedlander) of Heavy Metal music. Listen to “Battery” by the powerful California band, Metallica. List any of the Heavy Metal characteristics you notice in this song.
8. The staggering array of heavy metal (or metal inspired) bands, all contain heavy metal characteristics such as simple guitar riffs, shrieking vocals, and exploding guitar chords—yet many of the following metal bands have a distinctive sound all their own.
Select two different artists/bands from the list below. This question may be satisfied by comparing just two songs—one from each of your selected heavy metal bands. Describe the music you selected. Are there any musical characteristics that these two different artists/bands seem to have in common? Conversely, what characteristics do you notice that seem to distinguish each band from the other? Do you hear any aspects on your particular recordings that Friedlander outlined in his chapter? If yes, please list. Also, please list any other characteristics you hear that are not outlined by him.
a) Black Sabbath – Paranoid (Full Album) from 1970
b) Deep Purple Machine Head (Full Album) from 1972 featuring “Smoke On The Water”
c) Judas Priest – Screaming for Vengeance (Full Album) from 1982
d) Motorhead – Ace of Spades (Full Album) from 1980
e) Kiss – Destroyer (Live tour concert from 1976)
f) Iron Maiden – The Number of the Beast (Full album) from 1982
Iron Maiden even had their own band mascot–a tall wild looking caricature of a rotting corpse named Eddie!
g) Def Leppard – High’n’Dry (Full album) from 1981
h) AC/DC – Back In Black (Full album) from 1980
i) Motley Crue – Shout At The Devil (Full Album) from 1983
j) Metallica – Kill ‘Em All (Full Album) from 1983
k) Rush – Moving Pictures (Full Album) 1981
l) Blue Cheer – “Summertime Blues” from 1968
m) Iron Butterfly – “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” from 1968, all 17 plus minutes!
9. According to Friedlander, “many mainstream critics described heavy metal music as artistically impoverished, vacant, and deviant.” Do you agree or disagree? Why?
“We take objects with one function and give them another” – Pete Townshend
Avant-Garde composer, John Cage took his ideas from Zen Buddhism, and from Henry Cowell who used clusters of pitches on the piano, playing it with his fists and/or forearm. He stroked the strings inside the piano, producing a ghost-like sound. Cage expanded Cowell’s ideas by placing pieces of paper, rubber and metal between the piano strings to establish a whole new spectrum of timbres (in much the same way as Hendrix’s novel approach to the electric guitar). Of equal importance is Cage’s belief in total acceptance—there could be neither right or wrong solutions in an art created totally by chance.
10. Listen to the excerpt from the John Cage composition “Indeterminacy”. What did you think of it? What is your response? For this writer, listening to Cage always makes me consider the following question—What is music?
11. Musique concrete is the process of taking ambient sound events (tires screeching, birds chirping, factory noise, a door closing, etc.) and using them as compositional materials in electronic music or used as effects in other musics. The English art rock band Pink Floyd took its name from blues guitarists Pink Anderson and Floyd Council, both from Georgia. Like The Grateful Dead, Pink Floyd was concerned with audio technology and introduced something known as the Azimuth—a specific type of sound system that rotated their sound in a 360 degree circle. This resulted in making their live concert music ambient. On their 1969 album titled, Ummagumma, each band member did a piece on their own. This music featured minor keyed or atonal music (music without a home key or tonal center) and included avant-garde devices such as Musique concrete—one hears footsteps, voices, and birds.
Listen to side one of Pink Floyd’s classic 1972 album, Dark Side of the Moon—engineered by Alan Parsons and recorded at EMI Abbey Road Studios, London. What musical devices are prominent here? List them.
a) Speak To Me – (Nick Mason)
b) Breathe – (Roger Waters, David Gilmour, Richard Wright)
c) On The Run – (Gilmour & Waters)
d) Time – (Mason, Waters, Wright, Gilmour)
e) The Great Gig In The Sky – (Wright)
“While (Jimmy) Page lit black candles in search of supernatural favors, other(s) found transcendence in more down-to-earth ways: they put on dresses. The wearing of glitter makeup and girls’ clothing by male rock stars (and the glitter/glam movement it produced) told the world it could discard gender roles that had been in place through the whole of civilization. Glitter/Glam taking its cue from artists as far back as Little Richard, of course, had been producing it since puberty, the theatrics and music of Alice Cooper (Vincent Furnier), Elton John (Reginald Dwight), and David Bowie, (David Robert Jones) represent a leap beyond mere cross-dressing.” – Nathan Rubin
12. Listen and describe what you hear in the two following two compositions by the most theatrical, David Bowie. Provide an overview of his career highlighting specific characteristics about him and his approach to this form of rock and roll.
a) Space Oddity
b) Suffragette City
13. Elton John has a wonderful command of melody. His music coupled with Bernie Taupin’s lyrics ranks among some of the finest post-Beatles pop/rock to date. He is an accomplished pianist, vocalist, and showman. Known for wearing outrageous costumes during his excellent live shows, Elton never lets his audience go unsatisfied. His large and loyal following have provided him with a most prosperous career. What do you hear (lyric content and delivery style, use/application of specific instruments, specific genres of music recognized or influencing his music etc.) in each of these songs by Elton John?
a) Your Song
b) Levon
c) Funeral For A Friend
“A critics’ poll taken a decade and a half later named The Velvet Underground and Nico as the eighth best album in rock history.” The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll states that “in the age of flower power they (The Velvet Underground) spoke in no uncertain terms of social alienation, sexual deviancy, drug addiction, violence, and hopelessness—the songs evoked the exhilaration and destructiveness of modern urban life.” (Romamowski/George-Warren/Pareles, 1044)
14. Listen to and describe what you hear in the following music of The Velvet Underground. Identify the characteristics you hear that “open the door (anticipate) to glitter, punk, and heavy metal.”
a) Heroin
b) Venus In Furs
15. What instrument did The Velvet Underground’s John Cale play?
16. Briefly list the contributions and influence of Lou Reed to the Velvet’s sound. Notice the obvious influence of Bob Dylan in Reed’s vocal approach.
17. Outline the way(s) that Iggy Stooge/Pop, the New York Dolls, Television, Patti Smith, and the Ramones serve as prototypes to punk. To provide the proper atmosphere for your response, listen to the following tunes by the Ramones:
a) Teenage Lobotomy
b) Do You Wanna Dance
c) I Wanna Be Well
18. What external (non-musical) influences were combining to shape the advent and specific characteristics of Punk Rock music?
19. Look up and provide the definition of the word nihilism. How does this word and its meaning relate to the music of the seminal Punk Rock band The Sex Pistols?
20. Based on your reading in Friedlander and your own rapidly growing skills in musical analysis, listen, compare, and contrast the music of the Sex Pistols and The Clash:
a) London Calling – The Clash
b) God Save the Queen – The Sex Pistols
c) Anarchy in the U.K. – The Sex Pistols
21. The Dead Kennedys, featuring vocalist Jello Biafra, were the major Punk Rock band from the United States. Their music dealt with topics ranging from U.S. imperialism, and fascism, to slams against the moral majority and suburbia. They were from San Francisco, CA. Listen to one of the following Dead Kennedys albums listed below and describe the characteristics, influences, instruments, and vocal styles on the album you have selected.
a) Fresh Fruit For Rotting Vegetables – (Full Album) from 1980
b1) In God We Trust, Inc. – (Side 1 of the original album) from 1981
b2) In God We Trust, Inc. – (Side 2 of the original album) from 1981
c) Plastic Surgery Disasters – (Tracks 1-6) from 1982
c2) Plastic Surgery Disasters – (Tracks 7-9) from 1982
22. Describe the ways that Punk Bands communicated with their audience. View and describe the video of The Circle Jerks Live from 1981 below. Be sure to include how the audience/musician barrier was severed.
The Circle Jerks Live in 1981

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INTERNATIONAL COAL. Approach this as if it were a ...

Your coursework assignment is the case INTERNATIONAL COAL.
Approach this as if it were a piece of commercial work (e.g. external or internal consulting) rather than an academic submission. The deliverable is a report addressed to Bob Manchester at International Coal.To approach the writing of the report and presentation of your accompanying model(s), try to put yourself in Bob Manchester’s shoes.
Bob Manchester is a busy, bright middle-manager, with an engineering background. He does not have a knowledge of or great interest in the details of linear programming or the academic literature! Think about what he needs to know in order to make the decisions necessary in his job, what closely-related issues arising from your modelling that he should be informed about, and how he would want to receive this information.
The style to be adopted for the submission is StyleA: Consulting or Managerial Report (see the Guidance on submission styles document on Blackboard).
• The Management Report should be no more than 10 or 12pages long, including cover page, executive summary, contents etc.
• There is no hard limit for the Technical Appendices, but all components must be relevant, annotated, neatly presented and referred to in the Management Report. 20 pages might be a reasonable expectation. It must include some documentation for the models, concentrating on how the model is structured and how to use it, not on general background about how to build a model in Excel etc. The models should be in electronic form and accompany the Technical Appendices.
The focus is solving the problem as presented, and potentially providing International Coal with a methodology for continuing this approach. Academic/theoretical material or research into the context and regulatory background is not required. If you regard some as strictly necessary, try to confine it to the technical appendices and remember to use the MBS ‘house style’ for referencing (the Harvard system: there should be examples in the Programme Handbook).
A high standard will also be expected in presentation, English, grammar, formatting etc.
The report should cover:
• The recommended schedule of burning and, if necessary, buying fuels
• Input and output data used in developing your recommendation.
• An insight into the method, logic and tools used
• Information about the constraints to greater profit
• Insights into the effect on the burning schedule of FGD
• The impact of potential changes in the ROC payment rate
• Suggestions for further work (that Bob Manchester could commission from you)
• Your models in electronic format, with some accompanying documentation, so that Bob Manchester and his team may do some checking, further ‘what-if?’ analyses and potentially develop them for further use.
(N.B. The above guidance is not indented to be prescriptive or a contents list, but gives more detailed prompts than usual since this is your first individual assignment.)
Marks breakdown
Management report
Presentation 10%
Exec summary 10%
Conceptual explanation of the modelling 20%
Critical analysis on the results 20%
Basic recommendations 10%
Technical applications
Presentation 10%
Structuring of models 10%
Modelling 10%
You must submit your individual report to this coursework assignment to the programme administrator no later than 15.00 on Monday 9/12/2013.
You must also submit your individual report to this coursework assignment to Blackboard no later than 15.00 on Monday 9/12/2013.
INTERNATIONAL COAL
Coal-fired Power Generation
Compared with other fossil fuels, burning coal produces relatively large amounts of atmospheric pollutants: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulates. Therefore over recent decades there has been a decline in the use of coal for power generation. However, as supplies of other easily-accessible fossil fuels dwindle there remain vast deposits of coal, and the International Energy Agency estimates that coal will still be used to generate 38% of the world’s electricity in 2020.
Within the European Union, environmental concerns have led to limits on emission of pollutants. A market has been established for trading CO2 emissions. A generator has to pay for CO2 emissions at the market rate, so they can be treated as an additional fuel cost. This may be extended to SO2, but currently generators are allocated a limit (a ‘sulphur bubble’) for a year running from October to October (the ‘sulphur year’).
Flue-gas desulpherisation (FGD) and ‘scrubber’ technology can reduce emission levels of SO2 and NOxrespectively from the exhaust gases.
Coals from different regions of the world have different composition, with different calorific values and pollutant content. Combinations of coals are often used so that trade-offs can be made between costs, energy and the various emissions produced.
Recently some coal-fired plants have started to ‘co-fire’, blending coal with biomass. Biomass includes waste products from forestry (e.g. wood chips), from paper production, and from agriculture (e.g. straw and olive cake ). In the UK the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has set the target that by 2010 renewable sources should contribute 10% of the UK electricity supply, and generators are paid a supplement for each MWh of power generated this way (this is known as the Renewables Obligation Certificate, ROC). The DTI foresees the combustion of biomass, both domestic and imported, as being the fastest growing component of the renewable energy.
International Coal
International Coal (IC) operates a large (1,000 MW) coal-fired plant in the UK. They employ a team who purchase different fuels in order to maximise margin (profit) whilst keeping within environmental limits, especially on sulphur. IC has been allocated a sulphur bubble of 30 kilo tonnes for the year (to the end of October). CO2 emission is taken to be 0.8 tonnes per MWh of electricity produced.
Coal is typically bought three or more months ahead of planned burn and stockpiles are kept at the plant. Stockpiled coal is stored in mixed piles, however biomass has to be stocked separately. Transport costs are factored into the fuel prices. The plant has 35% efficiency, i.e. 35% of the calorific energy released in a burn is converted to MWh of electrical power.
Power is sold to the electricity markets, and fuel buying is done on the basis of future prices in these markets. Each month is divided into four price bands: categorised by weekend or weekday, and peak or off-peak. (Peak periods consist of a 12-hour block). Thus there are four future prices for each month. Power is distributed by the National Grid Company which charges IC a transmission rate of 65p per MWh.
The Problem
The fuel-buying team at IC is led by Bob Manchester. The buying decisions have been relatively straightforward, but as the sulphur bubble has become more restrictive, pressure is increasing to show that the best fuels are being used. Bob thinks there must be a systematic way of considering the tradeoffs involved in the decisions being made.
It is now the end of May 2005. To test the feasibility of a modelling approach, Bob wants to investigate power generation to the end of October, considering the stockpile of mixed coals at the plant, three types of coal that can be ordered for burning in September and October, and wood-chip biomass which can be bought with short lead-times. Fuel is to be paid for now, ignore discounting of any of the cash flows.
Biomass is more difficult to handle than coal, having more variable combustion characteristics (low density, extremes of particle shape, tendency to entangle and demix plus moisture has a large effect has on their behaviour), so may not provide more than 10% of the mix (by calorific value) in any of the generating periods.
Bob has provided fuel characteristics (Table 1) and future-price data (Table 2). The current coal stockpile at the plant (including coals previously ordered and en route) is 600,000 tonnes and there is 30% of the ‘sulphur bubble’ left this sulphur year. CO2 emission is trading at 15 Euros per tonne on the European market, which IP must pay for any CO2 produced. The ROC is £45 per MWh from renewables. The currency conversion data is given in Table 3.
Bob has also mentioned a couple potential future issues. SO2 emissions are a major concern for IC. One possibility is to invest in FGD. There is also the possibility that SO2 emissions may become tradable (and so a direct cost) in the way CO2 currently is. Either of these is likely to have a major impact on operations at the plant, but Bob is unsure how to start quantifying the potential benefits.
Assignment
Your charge is to
• Build and explain a prototype model
• Use your model to recommend a schedule of burning and, if necessary buying fuels
• Use your model and its results to offer:
o any further guidance on the impact of the costs of the fuels in particular, since these are futures prices, the effects of any drops in price
o any insights you can into the issues of FGD and sulphur-trading
Data
Table 1: Characteristics of Fuels
Fuel Pricea Calorific value SO2
£/tonne GJoules per tonne %b
Coal: Stockpile 42.56 25.81 1.38%
Coal: Columbian 43.93 25.12 0.70%
Coal: Russian 43.80 24.50 0.35%
Coal: Scottish 42.00 26.20 1.72%
Wood chips 73.77 18.00 0.01%
aconstant fuel prices for the period June- October 2005
ba coal with an SO2 rating of 1% will produce 0.01 tonne of SO2 for each tonne of the fuel burnt
Table 2: Future Electricity Prices
Electricity Market
Forward Prices June July August September October
Period: £ per MWh £ per MWh £ per MWh £ per MWh £ per MWh
WeekdayPeak 36.00 36.35 37.65 38.35 43.70
Weekday Off-peak 27.00 27.00 28.20 28.50 31.70
WeekendPeak 33.50 34.30 35.65 35.80 38.70
Weekend Off-peak 26.20 26.30 27.50 27.65 30.10
Table 3: Currency Conversiona
British pound per US Dollar 1.0000
British pound per Euro 0.6667
aconstant exchange rates for the period June- October 2005
About the contributors
Dr Nathan Proudlove, Senior Lecturer in Operational Research at Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, UK.
Dr. Cathy McClay, former Business Strategy Manager at First Hydro, a part of International Power Plc. She now works for Eon.
Appendix
CO2 trading
• Companies are allocated a CO2 emission limit by Government. The EU emissions trading scheme allows companies to sell unused CO2 allowance, or purchase further emission allowance from a market. The result is that in this case all CO2 emissions from the plant should be costed at the tradable value (the company’s allowance can be considered to have been used elsewhere or earlier in the year)
• Background information can be found atwww.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/trading/index.htm [accessed 10 Feb 2006]
sulphur bubble
• The ‘sulphur bubble’ is assigned by Government, as part of the Large Combustion Plant Directive agreed by the European Parliament; www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/lcpd/ [accessed 10 Feb 2006]
ROC
• “The Obligation requires suppliers to source an annually increasing percentage of their sales from renewables. For each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated, a tradable certificate called a Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) is issued.”
• Background information can be found atwww.dti.gov.uk/renewables/renew_2.2.2.htm [accessed 10 Feb 2006]

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